A further driving force is the role of technology. Line management is a significant issue for coffee houses as often the demand is concentrated in the early mornings. For example, Starbucks has been able to achieve customer service efficiency by introducing automatic espresso machines. According to Michelle Gass, Chief Merchant of Global Product, Starbucks, efficiency is a key driver in customer satisfaction as customers “want their beverage in under three minutes.”  Interestingly, however, it appears these efficiencies must be balanced with creating a mystique around the coffee experience and having an awareness of the consumers’ price-value ratio. For example, Starbucks customers, who pay a premium for coffee, seem to miss the elaborate process of brewing and drink creation. Starbucks’ CEO recently expressed a concern that the brand was becoming “watered down” and such gains in efficiency threatened to commoditize the brand.