Learning cannot happen without feedback, and that means learners need a clear picture of the progress that are (or are not) making. When assessments and feedback do not inform instruction or when they are not given to the students in a timely manner, learning cannot change because students do not know what to do differently. This lack of knowledge about what to improve can make some learners seem “perseverative,” careless, or unmotivated. For these learners all of the time, and for most learners some of the time, it is important to ensure that options can be customized to provide feedback that is more explicit, timely, informative, and accessible. Especially important is providing “formative” feedback that allows learners to monitor their own progress effectively and to use that information to guide their own effort and practice.
Making the case for a formal Anthropocene Epoch: an analysis of ongoing critiques . Zalasiewicz, Jan; Waters, Colin N.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Barnosky, Anthony D.; Cearreta, Alejandro; Edgeworth, Matt; Ellis, Erle C.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Gradstein, Felix M.; Grinevald, Jacques; Haff, Peter; Head, Martin J.; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A.; Jeandel, Catherine; Leinfelder, Reinhold; McNeill, John R.; Oreskes, Naomi; Poirier, Clément; Revkin, Andrew; Richter, Daniel deB.; Steffen, Will; Summerhayes, Colin; Syvitski, James .; Vidas, Davor; Wagreich, Michael; Wing, Scott; Williams, Mark (2017): Newsletters on Stratigraphy 50(2): 205-226 (Calhoun)